Ten Forms of Magnesium: Magnesium supplements are becoming increasingly popular as people learn more about the importance of magnesium in maintaining overall health. But with so many different types of magnesium supplements on the market, it can be difficult to know which one is right for you. This blog post will explore the different kinds of magnesium supplements and their benefits.
Here are the different forms of magnesium supplements, along with a brief description of each one.
Magnesium oxide is a compound containing magnesium and oxygen. It’s often used as a dietary supplement and antacid to relieve heartburn and indigestion. Magnesium oxide can also be used to treat magnesium deficiency1. In addition, some research suggests that magnesium oxide may have health benefits, such as relieving constipation, lowering blood pressure, and reducing the risk of osteoporosis 2.
Magnesium citrate is a magnesium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a laxative and has several potential health benefits 3. For example, magnesium citrate may help prevent kidney stones, relieve constipation, and improve heart health. Additionally, magnesium citrate has been shown to boost exercise performance and counteract the negative effects of stress 4.
Magnesium Ascorbate is a non-acidic buffered form of Vitamin C and a source of the essential mineral Magnesium. Together, these combinations have extremely high bioavailability and has a significantly higher gastrointestinal tolerance than some other forms of magnesium5. Due to its high absorption rate, very little magnesium ascorbate is needed to reap the benefits, which include battling oxidative stress due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C6.
Magnesium glycerophosphate is a chelated form containing magnesium, phosphorous, and glycerol. This combination is highly bioavailable, soluble, and well tolerated by the digestive system. Magnesium glycerophosphate supports the cell membrane and the main organ tissue constitution, especially in the brain tissues 7. This form of magnesium operates in phospholipid synthesis, which are complex lipids that participate in the constitution of cell membranes and the tissues of the main organs in your body.
Magnesium glycinate is a compound of magnesium and glycine often used to improve sleep quality and reduce stress levels8. Glycine is an amino acid needed for protein synthesis. It is also involved in the transport of magnesium across cell membranes. Magnesium glycinate is a chelated form of magnesium, which means that the body more easily absorbs it than other forms of magnesium. It is also less likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects than some other forms of magnesium.
Magnesium orotate is a compound formed when magnesium is combined with orotic acid. This natural substance has several benefits, including supporting cardiovascular health, reducing inflammation, and boosting energy levels 8. Magnesium orotate is also believed to help treat migraines and other headaches 9. Some research has shown that magnesium orotate can improve cognitive function and protect against age-related cognitive decline 10. This versatile compound is available in supplement form and is also found in some foods, such as dark chocolate and dried apricots.
DiMagnesium Malate is a chelated form of magnesium that combines magnesium with malic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid found in apples and other tart fruits. Although this form is naturally found in food, supplementation is often recommended since it is found in small doses in food 11. In addition, some studies suggest that magnesium malate is one of the most bioavailable forms of magnesium 12. As a result, this form of magnesium is often used to treat ailments like migraines, chronic pain, depression, and fibromyalgia, in a clinical setting 13.
Magnesium aspartate is a magnesium salt that contains two aspartic acid molecules. It is commonly used as a dietary supplement and is often included in sports drinks and energy bars. Magnesium aspartate is absorbed more effectively than other magnesium supplements, making it a popular choice for athletes and bodybuilders. In addition, magnesium aspartate has been shown to improve mental clarity and cognitive function. It is also used to treat migraines, anxiety, and depression 14.
Magnesium taurate helps to keep the heart healthy 15. This mineral supplement comprises magnesium and taurine, an amino acid. Magnesium is essential for many bodily functions, including muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Taurine, on the other hand, plays a role in regulating heartbeat and blood pressure. Together, these two nutrients help to keep the heart functioning properly. Numerous studies have shown that magnesium taurate can help reduce heart disease risk. In addition, this supplement has been shown to improve blood circulation and reduce stress levels.
Bonus: Chelated Magnesium
As a highly reactive mineral, magnesium does not like to exist alone. Therefore, all forms of magnesium contain elemental magnesium and at least one other atom or molecule that acts as a carrier. Magnesium is considered chelated when bound to a carrier by two or more attachment points. Nonchelated magnesium supplements are magnesium bound to a carrier by a single attachment point. This matters because chelated magnesium forms are typically much more bioavailable in the intestines or bloodstream than other forms of magnesium 16.
Some forms of chelated magnesium include ascorbate, carbonate, citrate, gluconate, lactate, malate, orotate, aspartate, glycinate, taurate, and threonate.
Many different magnesium supplements are available today, each with its unique benefits and drawbacks. Since every magnesium has a slightly different use in the body, combining all ten is ideal to ensure you provide your body with the building blocks for vibrant health.
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- Schaefer, D.M., et al. “Neutralization of Acid in the Rumen by Magnesium Oxide and Magnesium Carbonate.” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 65, no. 5, 1982, pp. 732–739., doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(82)82260-1.
- Mori, Hideki, et al. “Magnesium Oxide in Constipation.” Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 2, 2021, p. 421., doi:10.3390/nu13020421.
- Schiller, L. R. “The Therapy of Constipation.” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 15, no. 6, 2001, pp. 749–763., doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2001.00982.x.
- Bohl, Caroline H., and Stella L. Volpe. “Magnesium and Exercise.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 42, no. 6, 2002, pp. 533–563., doi:10.1080/20024091054247.
- “Supplemental Forms of Magnesium.” Linus Pauling Institute, 4 Feb. 2022, lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-C/supplemental-forms.
- Padayatty, Sebastian J., et al. “Vitamin C as an Antioxidant: Evaluation of Its Role in Disease Prevention.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 1, 2003, pp. 18–35., doi:10.1080/07315724.2003.10719272.
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 10012877, Magnesium glycerophosphate” PubChem, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Magnesium-glycerophosphate. Accessed 18 October, 2022.
- Boyle, Neil, et al. “The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress—a Systematic Review.” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 5, 2017, p. 429., doi:10.3390/nu9050429.
- Yablon LA, Mauskop A. Magnesium in headache. In: Vink R, Nechifor M, editors. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System [Internet]. Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press; 2011. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507271/
- Viel, Christian et al. “Effects of Magnesium Orotate, Benfotiamine and a Combination of Vitamins on Mitochondrial and Cholinergic Function in the TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 14,12 1218. 24 Nov. 2021, doi:10.3390/ph14121218
- “Malic Acid.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database, U.S. National Library of Medicine, pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Malic-acid.
- Uysal, Nazan et al. “Timeline (Bioavailability) of Magnesium Compounds in Hours: Which Magnesium Compound Works Best?.” Biological trace element research vol. 187,1 (2019): 128-136. doi:10.1007/s12011-018-1351-9
- Porter, Nicole S., et al. “Alternative Medical Interventions Used in the Treatment and Management of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 16, no. 3, 2010, pp. 235–249., doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0376.
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 60145874, Magnesium aspartate” PubChem, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Magnesium-aspartate. Accessed 19 October, 2022.
- Shrivastava, Parikshit et al. “Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive albino rats.” Journal of traditional and complementary medicine vol. 9,2 119-123. 2 Jun. 2018, doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.06.010
- Schuette, Sally A., et al. “Bioavailability of Magnesium Diglycinate vs Magnesium Oxide in Patients with Ileal Resection.” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 18, no. 5, 1994, pp. 430–435., doi:10.1177/0148607194018005430.